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Dott.ssa MORENA PEGGI Psicologa e Psicoterapeuta,

 Terapeuta Practitioner EMDR, Mediatrice Familiare

Studio di Psicologia Clinica e Forense

"Il benessere viene

dalla mente"




Pubblicato il 17 agosto 2014 alle 07.30

Secondo Mark Solms, psicoanalista e studioso di neuroscienze, si distinguono due forme di coscienza; la coscienza primaria (detta anche sensoriale) e quella secondaria ovvero autobiografica che permette alla nostra psiche di avere uno sguardo temporale, in modo da potere ricordare eventi remoti, autobiografici e da potere fare progetti per il futuro. Avrebbe come scopo quello di fornire meccanismi di controllo e i processi cerebrali ad essa collegati hanno fatto dell'uomo l'essere civilizzato e culturale che è.

La coscienza primaria, invece, sarebbe molto più primitiva ed arcaica, il suoi credo potrebbe essere sintetizzato nella frase "sento, dunque sono". Avrebbe un'estensione minima nel passato e nel futuro, a questo livello si creano rappresentazioni ed immagini mentali sotto forma di reti di neuroni. Tale coscienza sarebbe collegata al corpo interno e alle emozioni (che fanno capo a zone quali il tronco encefalico, l'ipotalamo e alla sostanza grigia periacquedottale) attraverso le vie nervose. Secondo Solms in queste aree cerebrali, con la loro coscienza primaria, ha sede l'Es, l'istanza pulsionale di Freud e che, fin dall'inizio, è cosciente: la coscienza nasce dall'Es.

L'originario Io cosciente, il senso di sè, non nasce dalla percezione dell'esterno. La prima consapevolezza di sè proviene dagli impulsi del corpo interno ed è generata dalle strutture del tronco cerebrale. La consapevolezza originaria di sè nasce quindi dall'Es. Questo Es si identifica progressivamente con l'oggetto che percepiamo quando ci guardiamo allo specchio: il nostro corpo esterno. Questo corpo esterno è solo una rappresentazione neuronale variabile a livello delle strutture cerebrali.

La coscienza secondaria dell'Io non può, quindi, essere la volontà primaria dell'individuo. E' solo un derivato dell'Es. E' l'Es a colmare l'Io inconsapevole di consapevolezza, di pulsioni e di varie emozioni, piacevoli o spiacevoli. L'Es è conscio fin dalla nascita, l'Io no.

La funzione dell'Io quindi sarebbe quella di ridurre la consapevolezza, di rinchiuderla nei confini in conformità con le richieste dell'ambiente esterno in cui viviamo. L'Es cerca di sommergere l'Io coi suoi bisogni, di farlo agire secondo le sue emozioni. L'Io si preoccupa di creare un equilibrio con ciò che è realmente possibile.

Tutto questo cosa significa?

Da un lato si creano patologie psichiche perchè l'Io blocca troppo rigidamente i bisogni dell'Es, cosicchè le pulsioni ed emozioni originarie non riescono ad esprimersi a sufficienza (nevrosi). Dall'altro lato la coscienza secondaria, l'Io, non riesce a tenere abbastanza a freno la coscienza primaria, l'Es, con i suoi impulsi, emozioni e con la troppa consapevolezza (psicosi).

Obiettivo principale di tutte le terapie dovrebbe essere quindi quello di favorire un maggiore equilibrio fra le due polarità, fra gli impulsi potenti e le loro inibizioni, "gestendo" al meglio le emozioni.

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